Sunday, March 22, 2020
Lighthouse Essay, Research Paper Ideas on Charles Tansley in To the Lighthouse In To the Lighthouse, Mr. Ramsay serves as a function theoretical account for Charles Tansley, and therefore has great influence on Tansley # 8217 ; s calling and positions toward adult females. Because Tansley is from an # 8220 ; unsuccessful # 8221 ; household, he needs a function theoretical account for success, which he finds in Ramsay. Tansley is remaining at the Ramsay house during a vacation in order to work on his thesis and to hold entree to Mr. Ramsay. Tansley greatly admires Ramsay, and hopes to affect him. # 8220 ; They knew what he ( Tansley ) liked best # 8211 ; to be for of all time walking up and down, up and down, with Mr. Ramsay, and stating who had won this, who had won that? # 8221 ; ( 7 ) . Charles Tansley is self-aware about being from a hapless, unsuccessful household. When Tansley walks with Mrs. Ramsay to the shop, he talks about the circus with # 8220 ; a uneasiness that made her wince # 8221 ; because his household could neer afford to see the circus ( 11 ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Thoughts On Charles Tansley In To The or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page # 8220 ; My male parent is a chemist, Mrs. Ramsay. He keeps a store, # 8221 ; Tansley explains ( 12 ) . Tansley aspires to be far more than a # 8220 ; working adult male, # 8221 ; but fears that he may stop up no more successful than his male parent ( 12 ) . Therefore, Tansley feels the demand to turn out his rational capablenesss. His actions at the dinner party show his insecurity. # 8220 ; He had come down in his ordinary apparels. He had non got any frock apparels # 8221 ; ( 85 ) . Because Tansley is excessively hapless to afford nice vesture, he feels really self-aware. # 8220 ; He felt highly, even physically, uncomfortable. He wanted person to give him a opportunity of asseverating himself # 8221 ; ( 90 ) . Ultimately, Tansley is driven to win in life and get the better of his low background. Although the Ramsays are non rich ( 22 ) , Tansley admires Mr. Ramsay and considers him successful plenty to follow his calling way. Not merely does Tansley desire to be a professor of doctrine, he besides is composing his thesis on the same rare subdivision of metaphysics that Mr. Ramsay surveies. However, Tansley # 8217 ; s esteem for Mr. Ramsay is non limited to academic chases. A natural by-product of this mentor-protege relationship is that Tansley efforts to emulate Ramsay # 8217 ; s behaviour in all facets of life. When Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay argue about whether the conditions will be suited for a trip to the beacon, Tansley rushes to Mr. Ramsay # 8217 ; s defence, stating that the air current is # 8221 ; # 8216 ; due west # 8217 ; ? that is to state, the air current blew in the worst possible way for set downing at the Lighthouse # 8221 ; ( 5 ) . Tansley will frequently reiterate things that Mr. Ramsay says verbatim. # 8220 ; All these immature work forces parodied her hubby, she reflected ; he said it would rain ; they said it would be a positive twister # 8221 ; ( 15 ) . Because Tansley admires Mr. Ramsay and desires to go more like him, Tansley adopts Ramsay # 8217 ; s point of views in all countries of life. The primary effect of this emulation is that Tansley adopts Ramsay # 8217 ; s attitudes toward adult females. Mr. Ramsay has some regard for adult females, peculiarly Mrs. Ramsay. They portion a deep, loving relationship. However, because their most intimate communicating occurs without the usage of words, the true nature of their relationship is merely apparent to the all-knowing storyteller and to the twosome themselves ( 124 ) . In public, nevertheless, Mr. Ramsay uses Mrs. Ram state to reenforce his self-importance, and frequently dominates her. Woolf vividly describes Mr. RamsayÃ¢â¬â¢s evocation of understanding from Mrs. Ramsay as Ã¢â¬Å"the waterless scimitar of the male, which smote pitilessly, once more and once more, demanding sympathyÃ¢â¬ ( 38 ) . Furthermore, Mr. Ramsay frequently becomes impatient with Mrs. Ramsay, whom, like most adult females, he considers stupid, and is unkind to her. Ã¢â¬Å"The extraordinary unreason of her comment, the foolishness of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s heads enraged him. . . she flew in the face of facts, told prevarications. He stamped his pes on the stone measure. Ã¢â¬ËDamn you, Ã¢â¬â¢ he saidÃ¢â¬ ( 31-2 ) . Later on, Mr. Ramsay feels guilty about his effusion, but an foreigner like Tansley neer views this ( 64 ) . All of this leads most uninformed perceivers to agree with Lily BriscoeÃ¢â¬â¢s judgement of Mr. Ramsay: that he Ã¢â¬Å"is spoilt ; he is a autocrat ; he wears Mrs. Ramsay to deathÃ¢â¬ ( 24 ) . Although Tansley does non see all of these peculiar cases of Mr. Ramsay # 8217 ; s public mistreatment of Mrs. Ramsay, it is likely that during his stay he witnesses many others. In short, Tansley sees merely Mr. Ramsay # 8217 ; s cold, condescending behavior toward adult females, neer recognizing that Mr. Ramsay genuinely loves Mrs. Ramsay. Because Tansley can merely emulate the behaviour he sees, he begins to exhibit the same disdainful attitude toward adult females. At the beginning of the novel, it is non clear how long Tansley has been at the Ramsay house. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate how much his sentiment of adult females has changed already. It is just to presume, nevertheless, that Tansley has less regard for adult females than he does originally due to Mr. Ramsay # 8217 ; s influence. Indeed, Tansley begins to happen adult females to be far inferior to work forces and therefore handle them awfully. # 8221 ; # 8216 ; No traveling to the Lighthouse tomorrow, Mr s. Ramsay, # 8217 ; he said, asseverating himself. He liked her. . . but he felt it necessary to asseverate himself # 8221 ; ( 86 ) . Tansley does non restrict his contempt for adult females to Mrs. Ramsay. He tells Lily Briscoe that # 8220 ; adult females can # 8217 ; t pigment, adult females can # 8217 ; t compose # 8221 ; ( 48 ) . On rare occasions, Tansley treats adult females with regard. Lily, for illustration, has both positive and negative experiences with Tansley, yet sums up her feelings for him in one word: # 8220 ; grotesque # 8221 ; ( 197 ) . Clearly, Tansley # 8217 ; s occasional kindness toward adult females does non extenuate his general mistreatment of them. Tansley even makes wide indictments of all females. While at the dinner tabular array, Tansley ponders # 8220 ; what damned putrefaction they talk. . . he was non traveling to be condescended by these cockamamie adult females # 8221 ; ( 85 ) . Besides during dinner, Tansley decides that # 8220 ; adul t females made civilisation impossible with their # 8216 ; appeal, # 8217 ; their absurdity # 8221 ; ( 85 ) . More significantly, Tansley grows to dislike adult females so much that he feels they destroy his stay at the Ramsay house. # 8220 ; It was deserving while making one time, he would state, but non once more. The adult females bored one so, he would state # 8221 ; ( 90 ) . Mr. Tansley is unsympathetic in a manner, and yet I feel sympathy for him. He is so uncomfortable about who he is. I picture him in his worn Grey flannel bloomerss in the dinner scene, so witting of himself and how everyone perceives him. I don # 8217 ; t believe he means to be so unsympathetic, I think I know how he feels. He wants so much to suit in, to be liked, yet he doesn # 8217 ; t cognize how to move. So, this seemingly misogynous immature adult male could be absolutely lovely if he merely knew how!
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Presidents Who Were Masons There are at least 14 presidents who were Masons, or Freemasons, according to the secretive fraternal organization and presidential historians. The list of presidents who were Masons includes the likes of George Washington and Theodore Roosevelt to Harry S. Truman and Gerald Ford. Truman was one of two presidents- the other was Andrew Jackson- to achieve the rank of grandmaster, the highest ranking position in a Masonic lodge jurisdiction. Washington, meantime, earned the highest possible position, that of master, and has a Masonic memorial named after him in Alexandria, Virginia, whose mission is to highlight the contributions of Freemasons to the nation. American presidents were among many of the nations most powerful men who were members of the Freemasons. Joining the organization was seen as a rite of passage, even a civic duty, in the 1700s. It also got some presidents into trouble. Here is a complete list of presidents who were Masons, drawn from the organizations own records as well as the historians who chronicled its importance in American life. George Washington Washington, the nations first president, became a Mason in Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1752. He has been quoted as saying, The object of Freemasonry is to promote the happiness of the human race. James Monroe Monroe, the nations fifth president, was initiated as a Freemason in 1775 before he was even 18 years old. He eventually became a member of the Masons lodge in Williamsburg, Virginia. Andrew Jackson Jackson, the nations seventh president, was considered a devout Mason who defended the lodge from critics. Andrew Jackson was loved by the Craft. He was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee and presided with masterly ability. He died as a Mason should die. He met the great Masonic foe and fell calmly beneath his silent blows, it was said of Jackson at the installation of a monument on his behalf in Memphis, Tennessee. James K. Polk Polk, the 11th president, began as a Mason in 1820 and achieved the rank of junior warden in his jurisdiction in Columbia, Tennessee, and earned the royal arch degree. In 1847, he helped in a Masonic ritual of laying a cornerstone at the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C., according to William L. Boyden. Boyden was a historian who wrote Masonic Presidents, Vice Presidents, and signers of the Declaration of Independence. James Buchanan Buchanan, our 15th president and only commander-in-chief to be a bachelor in the White House, joined the Masons in 1817 and achieved the rank of district deputy grand master in his home state of Pennsylvania. Andrew Johnson Johnson, the 17th president of the United States, was a loyal Mason. According to Boyden, At the cornerstone laying of the Baltimore Temple some one suggested that a chair be brought to the reviewing platform for him. Brother Johnson refused it, saying: We all meet on the level. James A. Garfield Garfield, the nations 20th president, was made a Mason in 1861in Columbus, Ohio. William McKinley McKinley, the nations 25th president, was made a Mason in 1865 in Winchester, Virginia. Todd E. Creason, founder of the Midnight Freemasons blog, wrote this about the understated McKinley: He was trusted. He listened much more than he spoke. He was willing to admit when he was wrong. But McKinleyÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest character trait was his honesty and integrity. He twice turned down the nomination for President because he felt each time that the Republican Party had violated its own rules in nominating him. He squashed the nomination both times-something a politician today would probably view as an unthinkable act. William McKinley is a very good example of what a true and upright Mason should be. Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelt, the 26th president, was made a Freemason in New York in 1901. He was known for his virtue and refusal to use his status as a Mason for political gain. Wrote Roosevelt: If you are a mason you will of course understand that it is expressly forbidden in masonry to attempt to use the order in any way for anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s political advantage, and it must not be done. I should emphatically object to any effort so to use it. William Howard Taft Taft, the 27th president, was made a Mason in 1909, just before becoming president. He was made a Mason at sight by the grand master of Ohio, meaning he did not have to earn his acceptance into the lodge like most others do. Warren G. Harding Harding, the 29th president, first sought acceptance into the Masonic brotherhood in 1901 but was initially blackballed. He was eventually accepted and held no grudges, wrote John R. Tester of Vermont. While president, Harding took every opportunity to speak for Masonry and attend Lodge meetings when he could, he wrote. Franklin D. Roosevelt Roosevelt, the 32nd president, was a 32nd Degree Mason. Harry S. Truman Truman, the 33rd president, was grand master and 33rd degree Mason. Gerald R. Ford Ford, the 38th president, is the most recent to have been a Mason. He began with the fraternity in 1949. No president since Ford has been a Freemason.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Taoism a way of being or a way of becoming - Essay Example Yang Chu's thought has traditionally been connected with Taoism and considered a development of the thought contained in the Tao Te Ching. Yet Mencius, who attacked the teachings of Yang Chu, never mentioned Lao Tzu in his works. Lao Tan, a wise old man who epitomized the ancient Tao, was aware of all the ancient rites held by Confucians to be the culmination of order and civilization. As it turned out, this man taught the virtues of softness and yielding, of ignorance and non-exertion, which did not quite harmonize with the Confucian enthusiasm for knowledge and form, for rites and fame. It also explained as to why Ssu-ma Ch'ien, a professed Confucian, fully aware that in his own time Taoism and Confucianism had developed into different, rival, schools, included the meeting of Lao Tzu and Confucius in both biographies. (Isabellee, 1997) The tradition that Confucius learned rites from Lao Tzu could have been perpetrated by the Confucians. Being historically minded, they had to show that their emphasis on ritual had deep roots in a venerated figure like Lao Tzu, the old master. In recent years a surge of academic interest in religious Taoism is witnessed towards its contribution to the development of Chinese science, and its rituals and practices like Girardot, Kaltenmark, Lagerwey and Welsh, etc. Though both are rooted in archaic Chinese religion, religious Taoism is a very different phenomenon from philosophical Taoism. Philosophical Taoism raised the ancient Chinese worldview to the level of thought. As a way of thinking it is clearly distinguishable from Confucianism, Mohism, Legalism, and other schools of thought in ancient China. Religious Taoism, on the other hand, is amorphous throughout its career. Tracing its roots to the practices of ancient shamans and diviners, as an organized religion it came into existence in the 2nd century A.D. The only indigenous religion of China which, incorporates in its development whatever enters the Chinese religious orbit. (Isabelle, 1997) It appropriated all the philosophical Taoist texts, including the Tao Te Chi ng and the Chuang Tzu, which become its sacred scriptures. But what are poetical musings and metaphysical reflections in these texts now become theory and dogma. Its most fervent search and promise are long life and immortality. While it reveres the author of the Tao Te Ching as its spiritual founder, it adopts the Yin-Yang and five-phase theory from the Yin Yang school, believes with Mo Tzu that heaven possesses conscious will, adopts Confucian ethics, and includes many Buddhist teachings and rituals. As a result the religious Taoist canon grew to thousands of volumes, for the study of all aspects of Chinese culture. Relationship between Taoism and Lao Tzu's Central Teaching The direct relationship between
Monday, February 3, 2020
EDMA_601_Assignment - Assignment Example Managers are ultimately accountable for the performance of their subordinates, and this can be measured through sales, production costs, etc. In addition to this, managers are also responsible for making sure that goals and objectives are communicated between upper management and the working staff. Managers are required to make sure that employees are staying on track and are moving toward the goals of the firm. Planning involves first determining an end goal or point by which success can be measured. Second, planning requires coming up with a process that will help the organization to get where it ultimately wants to. Finally, there needs to be the flexibility to readjust goals part way through the process if the situation changes. The three types of planning are operational, strategic, and contingency. Operational planning has to do with specific goals that are used to achieve job responsibilities. Strategic planning is more about the goals of the entire organization and then matching those up with each department. Finally, contingency planning is putting in emergency measures in case there is a change in the plan. Staffing has to do with assigning employees to roles and training them appropriately. The three major parts of staffing are planning, execution, and maintenance. Planning involves preparing for future changes, execution is how to enact those changes, and maintenance has to do with making sure nothing goes wrong with the changes proposed. The management function of controlling has to do with making a comparison between organizational performance and desired outcomes and then making adjustments to meet those outcomes. Management is all about making sure that the process is continuous and there is a clear chain of command. There are three main types of control: feedforward, concurrent, and feedback. The difference between each of them is that the first attempts to prevent problems from occurring in
Sunday, January 26, 2020
The Strengths And Weaknesses Of Terrorism Politics Essay Bacevichs comments regarding the ability of the United States of America to understand the conflicts it finds itself, to identify current and future threats and to prepare for the future is a symbol of the difficulty facing many states as they try and identify how to prepare their future national security policies and strategies. The challenges faced by states are reflected in the difficulties faced by academic researchers who also spend considerable time, effort and money on trying to solve the same problem. In the last ten years, a particular term has been used to describe the latest threat to global security, the Global War on Terror. The events of September 11th have brought about a greater interest in the subject of terrorism, a field of study which has grown by 85% since 1968 (SCHMID AND JONGMAN, 1988). That percentage will have increased greatly in the twenty-two years since Schmid and Jongmans study. It is surprising to consider that a greater study of terrorism was not carried out in the 1920s, considering that the Great War was started by the actions of a small and relatively unknown anarchic terrorist group. Similar to Insurgency, the field grows in strength as it becomes more widely used by actors in resistance to Western States on a large scale as the development of Western conventional warfare hegemony has grown. This essay seeks to identify where the field of terrorism studies has developed its greatest strengths and its greatest weaknesses in recent literature (defined as post 2004) and to discover whether or not the field, as it has grown ever more popular since the World Trade Centre attacks in 2001 (FRIEDRICHS, 2006), has moved on and developed. It will first discuss the question of the definition of Terrorism. It will then debate whether the habit of transient researchers has added or detracted from the field. Taking these two areas into consideration, it will consider the methodologies of Orthodox and Critical Terrorism studies and will show the development of new theories has been constrained by a use of secondary sources and the habit of lazy researching (SILKE, 2004).Finally, overall it will attempt to balance the strengths and weaknesses in the field to identify the challenges facing terrorism studies. It is important at this stage to try and define two key terms, Research and Terrorism. Research in itself is broken into three key areas; the exploratory, the descriptive and the explanatory (ROBSON, 1993). The effort of any field or discipline of study is to bring newly discovered information created from primary resources and statistics, describe it to other researchers and interested parties and then use that information to explain why events happen and then use that information to form models and theories to predict what effect may happen in the future (SILKE, 2004a). The second term to be defined is terrorism. The greatest challenge facing Terrorism research is certainly the definitional one. Schmid and questioned over one-hundred scholars to define terrorism (SCHMID AND JONGMAN, 1988). They responded with over 109 separate definitions .There is still no universal definition for terror, despite many worldwide organisations attempt to create one and despite forty years of wrangling over the subject, there has been little development. For the purposes of this essay, the use of the United Nations Security Council Shepherd Resolution 1566 definition, which refers to it as: criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act (S-RES-1566, 20 04). However, it must be remembered that this is not an official UN definition and is not used universally by UN member states. The challenges of attempting to research a subject in which no universal definition has been agreed upon will be discussed in detail below. THE DEFINITION DEBATE Before we can begin to understand Terrorism we must first of all decide what it is. Despite the actions by organisations generally described as terrorist for well over one-hundred years, the study of terrorism still suffers from the lack of a specific and legal definition of terrorism. As C. A. J. Coady wrote The definitional question is essentially irresolvable by appeal to ordinary language alone since terrorism as a concept is not ordinary (COADY, 2001). For some, such as the hegemonic power of the day (in the modern context, we should read United States) and for those fighting their own wars against separatists or insurgents using non-conventional tactics this lack of a legal definition could be used as an advantage (FRIEDRICHS, 2006). The post-2001 War on Terror during the Bush era was served by the lack of a universal definition as it allowed some nations to describe their own personal fights as part of this global war on terror. The United States, United Kingdom and even Russi a were particularly guilty of this as they implied affiliations with Arab nationals and Islamic organisations with that of terror groups and even state terror, despite there being no evidence of collaboration between the main perpetrator Al Qaeda and the Wests long term adversary Iraq. Even in Russia with the Beslan school siege, it was found that the terrorist actors had only two Arab members out of thirty-one hostage takers (DE WAAL, 2004). For the UK it was useful to secure the peace laid out in the Good Friday agreement with Irish terrorism, which had been held up by naÃÆ'Ã ¯ve Irish-Americans believing they were supporting a cause against an Imperial power. Terrorism then in its contemporary stance, is an essentially contested concept employed to meet the needs of those applying the term (WEINBERG AND EUBANK, 2008). For those countries opposed to the War on Terror, which for them was simply an excuse for an invasion of Iraq, a universal and legal definition of terror would give them a legal basis for preventing state intervention into countries opposing the United States and their followers economic and military hegemony (FRIEDRICHS, 2006). It is also important to note how definitions over time have changed in order to suit the time in the states dealing with terror, as any definition would not be useful without a contemporary analysis of the threat of the day. This would certainly be a demonstration of why pre-1968 terrorism was not of much of a concern as it has been post-1968: Why worry about a definition of terrorism when your concerns are of conventional threats from neighbouring states? The first attempts at defining terror came through the League of Nations after numerous assassination attempts were made in the mid 1930s, with King Alexander I of Yugoslavia assassinated by Croatian separatists while on a state visit to France (WALTERS, 1969). As the murder was found to be political, the escaped separatists hiding in Italy could not be extradited under a treaty made in 1870, which excluded political acts. It is important to note at this time, which would be a theme to follow other attempts at definition, that the final resolution by the League of Nations showed terrorism to be of a political angle: (3) to punish terrorist outrages which have an international character (SAUL, 2005). The treaty was signed by a small number of signatories, ratified by only India and never brought into law. With the advent of the Second World War and the end of the League of Nations, the resolution was quickly forgotten. It did however, set a number of important precedents: 1. That a universal definition of Terrorism needs to be reached through multilateral consensus through a forum of a worldwide organisation (in modern terms, the United Nations or possibly on a limited scale, the European Union). 2. That Terrorism was a political act. 3. That states should refrain from any act designed to encourage terrorist activities directed against another State and to prevent acts in which such activities take shape (1937, LEAGUE CONVENTION).. In effect, this banned state sponsored terrorism. 4. Finally, that acts of terrorism are acts directed against a State and intended or calculated to create a state of terror in the minds of particular persons, or a group of persons or the general public (1937, LEAGUE CONVENTION). This eliminates the possibility of a State using terror against its own population but does allow Terrorism to be committed by a state against another state. Terrorism researches would be sharp to note that political understanding is the key aspect to understanding terror. It is also quite important to note such a resolution, should it have been enforced by signatories had it been ratified on a wider scale, would most likely have prevented state intervention on humanitarian grounds as states were not classed as being able to be terrorists. The use of the armed forces in foreign and civil wars was not included in the resolution to prevent their use being defined as an act of terror (SAUL, 2005). The agenda has, after a number of starts and stops since the 1937 resolution, returned to the United Nations. Since almost all international action into other states in this last 10 years has some way been connected or has been implied to be connected to terrorist actions, it is of little surprise (PETERSON, 2004). The growth of international conventions which have yet to bring about a universal legal basis gives a great deal of guidance and a strong start in the search for a definition, but has failed to create the sought after legal framework. It is also important to note that with a change in administration within the United States which has changed US foreign policy from unilateral action to that of multilateral approaches has also brought about a need for the hegemonic powers to define who the universal enemy is as predicted by Jorg Friedrich (FRIEDRICHS, 2006) and that a floating and independent definition of who the enemy is no longer serves the purposes of the coalition of th e willing, a group that were unable to even decide who the common enemy was. A definition that explains who the universal enemy to all states is (i.e. al Qaeda) will greatly enhance states ability to combat it (FRIEDRICHS, 2006), allow Terrorism researchers to focus their efforts on moving past the exploratory stage of research and allow all to generate theories on explaining and preventing further terror events. As Silke states, What is terrorism? What makes a terrorist act? What makes a group a terrorist group? These are such basic questions; and yet satisfactory answers continue to elude the field (SILKE, 2004a). Until we are able to answer these questions, terrorism research will be confined to the exploratory and descriptive stages of research. FASHIONABLE FADS It is of no surprise that Schmid and Jongman identify 1968 as the year in which interest in terrorism grew in the academic and lay community and it is of little surprise that the level of interest has grown massively with continuous references to the events of 9/11 (GORDON, 2004). Many academics from other disciplines will have identified terrorism as an interesting field of study to begin to analyse from their own perspective and their own particular specialism. Andrew Silke identifies these individuals as transient authors (SILKE, 2004a) and notes that over 80% of terrorism research articles were from one-timers (SILKE, 2004b), who applied their subject expertise to the new fashionable fad of terrorism studies. Avishag Gordon also discusses the issue of transient authors in great detail, stating that Terrorism as a research field lacks constancy and the commitment of researchers to the field (GORDON, 2007), a sentiment shared by Silke who states that they are simply after a one-off publication and have no real interest in the field (SILKE, 2004a). Silke also writes about Ariel Merari who is particularly scathing towards contributors who are unfamiliar with terrorism research. It is said that usually a contribution of this kind is well-grounded in the empirical and theoretical findings of the writers particular area of expertise, but lacking in knowledge in terrorismÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (MERARI, 1991). It is perhaps understandable to see where these seasoned terrorism researchers are coming from; Silkes study in 2004 following on from Schmid and Jongmans study in 1988, shows that over 75% of works from 1990-1999 comes from authors whose backgrounds are political sciences, government departments, consultancy, sociology and psychology respectively (SILKE, 2004b). However, it is perhaps a little short sighted to simply write off one-time contributors to the field as people who simply felt that had something to contribute to the juicy subject of terrorism (MERARI, 1991). Instead, we can quickly identify areas in which these outside disciplines have considerably strengthened the field of terrorism studies. First of all, let us consider the motivations and backgrounds of those who study terrorism as their main subject of interest. Many are Military personnel, police officers, Government Officials and spies; all who, in some regards, deal with terrorism as some aspect of their job. Their interest in this subject comes from their desire to improve their capacity to work within their vocation, but what are they likely to bring to the debate? Most may bring a good deal of experience to the subject but experience is not something terrorism researchers are lacking; it is an understanding of the psychology, sociology and economics that motivate an individual to resort to terrorism. Military units are well known for their failures in dealing with civilian populations; the United States militarys inability to quell insurgency in Vietnam and their heavy handedness in Iraq after the 2003 which generated a near civil-war are two easy examples to find. And this is not simply a US military problem. R ussian actions in Chechnya, Israeli actions in Palestine and British actions in Aden are three other examples of how militaries failed to understand the causes, and thus create resolutions too, the problems they faced. As a result, any research which brings a fresh and unexpected look and well grounded in the empirical and theoretical (MERARI, 1991) would bring knowledge and primary source information into the field which would otherwise not exist. They also bring with them greater knowledge of empirical analysis Secondly, statistics do not always speak the whole truth. Though there are admittedly a large number of one-off contributors to the field since 2000, many authors have actually combined their knowledge of psychology, sociology and economics with that of terrorism to move their research on from the exploratory stage of research and into the explanatory. For example Walter Enders and Todd Sandler have co-written numerous articles and works on the subjects of terrorism and its effects on economics, tourism and transnational policies for dealing with terrorism. Enders and Sandler are also not alone in bringing knowledge from other disciplines into the field. Gordon discusses the research of another academic, who look into transient researchers in other fields to see how many conduct continuous research. Hawkins in 1978, who analysed the literature of Gas Compounds, discovered that only 4.7% of researchers continued to study in the field for more than ten years, compared with 66.4% who co ntributed only for one year (GORDON, 2007). Despite the protestations of Silke, Merari and even Gordon himself, Gordon appears to have shown that terrorism studies is not alone in the number of transient academics who contribute. Since 2001, it has also been financially easier for researchers to get funding from state sources, as the needs of governments to counter the rise of Terrorism is able to generate a new host of researchers who will stick with the subject (WEINBERG AND EUBANK, 2008) Thirdly, as Meadows describes in 1998, who sees intellectual mobility as an inevitable trend that marks the rise of new topics in the sciences (GORDON, 2007) which can bring new subjects and new areas unbeknown otherwise to the fore. Leydesdorff Wagner go further to say that continuant authors are the core of the field of research. They attract transient authors to contribute to the field, bringing new information (LEYDESDORFF WAGNER, 2005). It should then be considered a strength to terrorism studies in which transient authors decide to contribute to the field of study by bringing in expertise in the disciplines of economics, psychology and sociology, knowledge which would either be left out from studies or would slow down the progress of terrorism research as academics spend more term learning the details of other disciplines. It can be seen that many of these authors do become continuant authors, as the likes of Enders and Sandler have shown. THE GOOD AND THE EVIL Perhaps one of the greatest failing of Terrorism is studies is explaining why individuals and groups feel the need to resort to Terror through a theoretical basis. Gaetano Ilardi suggests that the focus of terrorism studies has been lost as researchers become focused on areas of less concern, which importantly has prevented the development of a sound theoretical understanding of the dynamics of terrorism (ILARDI, 2004). The basis for this assumption, which Richard Jackson (JACKSON, 2007) concurs with, is that Terrorism studies has been distracted by a so-called New Terrorism (JACKSON, 2007) since September 11th, which has gripped the attention of the world at large through a them-and-us perception of good and evil. Ilardi points out Bush used the word evil eleven times on his 11th October 2001 speech (ILARDI, 2004) to point the new war on terror as simply a battle against good and evil. It is of no surprise then, that 90% of Terrorism scholarly articles have been written since Septem ber 11th (SHEPHERED, 2007) This debate on good against evil in the war on terror has long been criticised as preventing further development at the political level. As challenges in Iraq grew in 2005/06, the Iraq study group noted that Many Americans are dissatisfied, not just with the situation in Iraq but with the state of our political debate regarding IraqÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Our country deserves a debate that prizes substance over rhetoric. (IRAQ STUDY GROUP, 2006). As many reports on Terror and Terrorists is written from an us perspective from Governmental and Security departments of Western nations, the general assumption that Western democratic way of living is the right way (HUNTINGDON, 1997) has resulted in policy makers and Terror researchers believing that Western democracy can solve Terror problems in other countries, which Huntingdon described as the West and the rest (HUNTINGDON, 1997). Ilardi points out that the USA and its Western allies believe in their core values of law, democracy, freedom and pe ace (ILARDI, 2004) and also shows how the Bush era rhetoric rarely discusses the war on terror and democracy as separate issues. The inability to separate foreign policy and the exportation of Western democracy from the fundamentals of Terrorism research has prevented the field from maturing beyond a comic book perception of Good Vs. Evil. This rhetoric prevents researchers from developing an understanding of, for example, bin Laden as a declaration of evil absolves the need for Western states to understand their decisions, reasons and policies (ILARDI, 2004). It encourages fear, bias and obscures the root of the problemÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦and denies the perpetrator even the slightest degree of legitimacy, so their grievances are at best incidental (ILARDI, 2004). This moralistic perspective, as described by Dr Richard Jackson, is deeply antithetical to scientific inquiry, which calls for a more dispassionate and less moralistic analysis of the evidence (JACKSON, 2007). Such an approach would not only assist with the finding of a definition, but also finally quell the most over-stated phrase in Terrorism studies that ones terrorist is anothers freedom fighter, a statement which hugely over-simplifies the difficulties faced by students of Terrorism. In order to move the Terrorism debate forward, Jackson suggests a move away from Orthodox Terrorism Studies (which is branded by (1) its poor methods and theories, (2) its state centricity, (3) its problem solving orientation, and (4) its institutional and intellectual links to state security projects) and towards Critical Terrorism Studies (JACKSON, 2007), which, as the name suggest, a far more skeptical approach to current assumed Terrorism knowledge (Jackson, 2007). Jacksons argument can be seen to support the inclusion of experts in other fields delivering fresh perspectives, compared to that of Silke, Merari and Gordon who are far more snobbish when it comes to transients. In response to Jacksons criticisms, Horgan and Boyle (2008) indicate that most scholars are well aware of the difficulties faced with Terrorism research, writing An implicit presumption from this is that terrorism scholars have laboured for all of these years without being aware that their area of study has an implicit bias, as well as definitional and methodological problems (HORGAN AND BOYLE, 2008). However, Horgan and Boyles argument does not deal with the problem at hand; if the issues in Terrorism studies are based around a moralistic bias, a lack of definitions and failures in methodology it is not excusable to simple mention that researchers are aware of these difficulties without attempting to overcome them. This habit of making excuses for Terrorism research failures appears to be quite common, with Weinberg and Eubank writing Andrew Silke, Marc Sageman, Alex Schmid and a long list of other investigators have called our attention to significant and long-term flaws in how ter rorism has been studied since the phenomenon itself reappeared in the 1960s (WEINBERG AND EUBANK, 2008). The critics of Critical Terrorism Studies put forward by Jackson appear to be far more concerned with protecting the Orthodox methods of research (which will be discussed in detail next in this essay), despite recognising its flaws, instead of working to overcome them. If they are widely recognized by a wide number of researchers and authors, why are they still so prominent? The last aspect of the Good Vs. Evil debate is the question of State Terror. Ever since the League of Nations convention ruled out the State as being capable of committing Terror, it has been a limited area of study. Jackson highlights this, saying Of particular concern is that, with only a few notable exceptions, terrorism studies has failed to engage with the issues and practices of state terrorism (JACKSON, 2007). Andrew Silke in his 2004 study shows that only 12 out of 490 journals addressed the question of State Terror (SILKE, 2004b). As the growth in Terrorism studies has been funded by a need from Governmental organisations and security services focused on the states needs against opposing organisations, this is not a surprise. Working that Terrorism and its definition is useful for the state itself, it is only post-September 11th that the US and its Western allies have at all been interested in State Terror, as it would allow them to cry out against nations which, according t o them, Terrorise their own population (Iran is an excellent example here). Weinberg and Eubank argue against Jackson, saying The critical terrorism studies claims about the ideological bias and state-centric nature of conventional terrorism studies seems complex and requires a more extended reaction (WEINBERG AND EUBANK, 2008). However, once again the supporters of Orthodox Terrorism Studies appear to have missed the point; researchers should not be relying solely on Governments sponsoring research in their fight against the Evil in the world as the Good Guys. They should instead be taking an objective and empirical approach to analysing the causes and solutions to Terrorism, avoid a state-centric angle which would prevent the Good Vs. Evil debate and finally rid us of the freedom fighters and terrorists statement. Shepherd, Jessica, The Rise and Rise of Terrorism Studies, The Guardian (2007) The Iraq Study Group, (2006) The Iraq Study Group Report, Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, December Jackson, Richard, The core commitments of critical terrorism studies, European political science: (2007) LEYDESDORFF WAGNER, Network structure, self-organization, and the growth of international collaboration in science, George Washington University Center for International Science and Technology Policy (2005) Merari, Ariel, Terrorism and Political Violence, Volume 3, Issue 1 Spring 1991 , pages 88 102 Schmid, Alex and Jongman, Albert, Political Terrorism: a New Guide To Actiors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories and Literature (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction books, 1988). Robson, Colin, Real World Research (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993) Silke, Andrew, (A) Research on Terrorism in A. Silke (ed.) Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures (London: Portland, 2004) Silke, Andrew, (B) The Road Less Travelled in A. Silke (ed.) Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures (London: Portland, 2004) Ilardi, G. (2004) Redefining the Issues: The Future of Terrorism Research and the Search for Empathy, in A. Silke (ed.) Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures (London: Portland, 2004) United Nations Security Council Resolution S-RES-1566(2004) in 2004 (retrieved 06/01/2010) Gordon, AVISHAG, Terrorism and Knowledge Growth: A Databases and Internet Analysis in A. Silke (ed.) Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures (London: Portland, 2004) Gordon, AVISHAG, Transient and continuant authors in a research field: The case of terrorism, Scientometrics, Vol. 72, No. 2 (2007) 213-224 FRIEDRICHS, JORG, Defining the International Public Enemy: The Political Struggle behind the Legal Debate on International Terrorism (Leiden Journal of International Law, 19 2006), de Waal, Thomas, Chechnya: War on terror legends debunked, (Index on Censorship www.indexonline.org, November 18, 2004) 1937 League Convention, in International Conference Proceedings, supra n. 32, annex I, p. 5; and 1937 Convention for the Creation of an International Criminal Court, in International Conference Proceedings, supra, n. 32. Peterson, M. J. , Using the General Assembly, in J. Boulden and T. G.Weiss (eds.), Terrorism and the UN: Before and After September 11 (2004) Coady, C. A. J., Terrorism, Encyclopedia of Ethics, Lawrence C . Becker (ed.) (New York: Garland, 2001). Weinberg, Leonard and Eubank, William(2008) Problems with the critical studies approach to the study of terrorism, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 1: 2, 185 195 Horgan, John and Boyle, Michael J.(2008) A case against Critical Terrorism Studies, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 1: 1, 51 64
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The Lion King was first made in 1994 directed by Roger Allers and Rob Minkoff. The original Disney cartoon of a lion cub blamed for his father's death has been remade into a Broadway musical acclaimed all over the world. The Lion King is a musical based on the 1994 Disney animated film of the same name with music by Elton John. Directed by Julie Taymor, the musical features actors in animal costumes as well as giant, hollow puppets. The show is produced by Disney Theatrical.The director works closely with the performers in the theatre, guiding them in sharping their performance. The director also works closely with the playwright, and is responsible, as well, for coordinating other aspects of the production. When Julie Taymor the director was faced with a problem of whether to create humans or animals playing the part and she decided to make masks that show the animal face, as well as, show the human face giving the character his or her personality.The costumes have a value of their own, adding color, shape, texture, and symbolism to overall effect. Other element such as; make up, hairstyles, mask and personal items like bracelets and necklaces and also very important. As for expressing other animals that are not part of the main cast or to express a certain theme, 2 different kinds of puppetry were used to express an African theme. Masks are considered Ã¢â¬Å"functional works of artÃ¢â¬ and play a social purpose in Africa.They are used in storytelling and ceremonies and are made to be worn over the head rather than cover the face. This technique is also used in The Lion King so that the human facial expression is not lost and to support the beadwork, corsets and armor used to show the human qualities of a lion. The costumes on the other hand are made of silk cloth to hide the human form, break the shoulder line and to enhance the powerful Joints and thighs. Lion king The Lion King was first made in 1994 directed by Roger Allers and Rob Minkoff. The original Disney cartoon of a lion cub blamed for his father's death has been remade into a Broadway musical acclaimed all over the world. The Lion King is a musical based on the 1994 Disney animated film of the same name with music by Elton John. Directed by Julie Taymor, the musical features actors in animal costumes as well as giant, hollow puppets. The show is produced by Disney Theatrical.The director works closely with the performers in the theatre, guiding them in sharping their performance. The director also works closely with the playwright, and is responsible, as well, for coordinating other aspects of the production. When Julie Taymor the director was faced with a problem of whether to create humans or animals playing the part and she decided to make masks that show the animal face, as well as, show the human face giving the character his or her personality.The costumes have a value of their own, adding color, shape, texture, and symbolism to overall effect. Other element such as; make up, hairstyles, mask and personal items like bracelets and necklaces and also very important. As for expressing other animals that are not part of the main cast or to express a certain theme, 2 different kinds of puppetry were used to express an African theme. Masks are considered Ã¢â¬Å"functional works of artÃ¢â¬ and play a social purpose in Africa.They are used in storytelling and ceremonies and are made to be worn over the head rather than cover the face. This technique is also used in The Lion King so that the human facial expression is not lost and to support the beadwork, corsets and armor used to show the human qualities of a lion. The costumes on the other hand are made of silk cloth to hide the human form, break the shoulder line and to enhance the powerful Joints and thighs.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Over the years his real job has come with many different titles. For 50 years he has been a son and brother, for 31 he has been a loving father, for 26 he has been a dedicated husband, for 5 he has been a grandfather, and for 18 years and counting he has been and will always be my mentor. Today I would like to honor my father John Zachary Smith, and explain to you how and why he has become my mentor. Standing at exactly 6 feet tall, sporting dark black hair and tan skin, being loud, extremely talkative and radiating with energy, are just a few characteristics that can be attributed to his Italian heritage. When introducing himself to someone new, he reaches out his rough and calloused hand giving them a firm handshake and replies Ã¢â¬Å"My nameÃ¢â¬â¢s John Smith, really honestÃ¢â¬ . My father has the ability to make friends with anyone because he is truly a real joy to be around. He sparks conversations with people and it would seem that were best friends. My father never lets an opportunity pass to teach his children. Being a father alone is difficult, but finding the time to impact each and every life of those seven children is a completely different rigorous task. Dad has taken this as a challenge and a life-long goal. My dad has taught me lots of things there is to know about many different subjects. Because of him I have learned to change tires on a car, because of him I have learned how to respect my siblings, because of him I have learned to cherish the moments in everyday life, because of him I have learned to have more confidence in myself. Moving away from home and being in college, I look back on my years at home with a little bit of sadness and tad bit of regret. I realize that I took my father for granted. When I would complain about how much homework a teacher had given me, I never once heard him complain about staying late after work. When I would complain about not having the latest outfit, I never once heard him complain about the worn out jeans and shoes he always wore. When I would complain about being tired, I never once heard my father say how exhausted he was from working long hours. My father was the hardest worker I know. My father and mother together have raised seven children. While my mom stayed at home taking care of the young ones, my father would be working to provide for his young family. When the children reached schooling age, my parents were smart with the money my father diligently worked for. When sending their children to a local public school would be easy and cost much less.